Sexual Transmission of Vaccinia

18 scientific studies on sexual and genital transmission of vaccinia.

In the United States, the smallpox vaccine is still given to the military.

Definition of vaccinia:

“1. The cowpox virus which is used to vaccinate against smallpox. 2. A cutaneous or systemic reaction to vaccination with the smallpox vaccine as, for example, in congenital vaccinia and progressive vaccinia.” -MedicineNet.com

Also see the category shedding

Accidental vaccinia of the vulva.

“Vaccinia of the vulva in a 32-year-old married woman is described. The vaccination was apparently due to a heteroinoculation from her husband during sexual contact. Clinically it presented as an indurated ulcer with a few isolated umbilicated vesicles and was associated with an acute biological false-positive serological reactions.”

#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Sexual #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1017236/

🛑 Accidental vaccinia vulva vaginitis.

“A thirty year old woman in whom an uncommon complication of smallpox vaccination developed is presented herein. In this case, virus was transmitted from the recently vaccinated child to the vulva and the vagina of the incompletely immune mother. The diagnosis was confirmed by a viral culture and a direct smear.”

#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7428429/

🛑 Conjugal transfer vaccinia.

“Two cases of conjugal contact transfer vaccinia are described. Each patient had intimate contact after their respective partners, active-duty military personnel, received the smallpox vaccination.”

#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Sexual #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15337993/

Contact vaccinia from recently vaccinated British soldiers.

#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Sexual #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1505686/

[An epidemic of vulvar vaccinia caused by catheterization].

No abstract available
PMID 13144592

#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/13144592/

Localized accidental vaccinia of the vulva. Report of 3 cases and a review of the world literature.

No abstract available
PMID 13955695

#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/13955695/

Risk of Contact Vaccinia From Immunization Sites

“To the Editor: Dr Garde and and colleagues1stated that “The mechanism of transfer from the vaccinee to the spouse is uncertain.” They did not report, however, whether they asked about mouth-to-nipple contact from the vaccinee to the spouse. Oral shedding of virus could transmit the virus via direct mucosal contact.”

#Shedding #Smallpox #Sexual #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/198749

Secondary and tertiary transmission of vaccinia virus after sexual contact with a smallpox vaccinee–San Diego, California, 2012.

“On June 24, 2012, CDC notified Public Health Services, County of San Diego Health and Human Services Agency, of a suspected case of vaccinia virus infection transmitted by sexual contact. The case had been reported to CDC by an infectious disease specialist who had requested vaccinia immune globulin intravenous (VIGIV) (Cangene Corporation, Berwyn, Pennsylvania) for a patient with lesions suspicious for vaccinia. The patient reported two recent sexual contacts: one with a partner who recently had been vaccinated against smallpox and a later encounter with an unvaccinated partner. Infections resulting from secondary transmission of vaccinia virus from the smallpox vaccinee to the patient and subsequent tertiary transmission of the virus from the patient to the unvaccinated partner were confirmed by the County of San Diego Public Health Laboratory. The smallpox vaccine had been administered under the U.S. Department of Defense smallpox vaccination program. The vaccinee did not experience vaccine-associated complications; however, the secondary and tertiary patients were hospitalized and treated with VIGIV. No further transmission was known to have occurred. This report describes the epidemiology and clinical course of the secondary and tertiary cases and efforts to prevent further transmission to contacts.”

#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Sexual #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23446513/

Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology position statement on donor suitability of recipients of smallpox vaccine (vaccinia virus).

#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17055849/

Transmission of vaccinia virus, possibly through sexual contact, to a woman at high risk for adverse complications.

“Severe adverse events, including eczema vaccinatum (EV), can result after smallpox vaccination. Persons at risk for EV include those with underlying dermatologic conditions, such as atopic dermatitis. We investigated a case of vaccinia infection, possibly acquired during sexual contact with a recently vaccinated military service member, in a female Maryland resident with atopic dermatitis. The U.S. Department of Defense’s Vaccine Healthcare Centers Network (VHCN) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) worked in conjunction with the patient’s physician and the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DHMH) to confirm the diagnosis, ensure treatment, and prevent further transmission. Specimens collected from the patient were tested at the DHMH laboratories and were positive by real-time polymerase chain reaction for nonvariola orthopoxvirus. Testing at the CDC verified the presence of vaccinia-specific DNA signatures. Continuing spread of the patient’s lesions led to the administration of vaccinia immune globulin and strict infection control measures to prevent tertiary transmission to vulnerable family members, also with atopic dermatitis. VHCN contacted the service member to reinforce vaccination site care and hygiene. This case underscores the importance of prevaccination education for those receiving the smallpox vaccine to protect contacts at risk for developing severe adverse reactions.”

#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Sexual #Transmission #Eczema #Dermatological #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/24306023/

[Vaccinia genitalis].

No abstract available
PMID 7167906

#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7167906/

🛑 Vaccinia of the vulva. A case report.

#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Sexual #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1045005/

Vaccinia virus infection after sexual contact with a military smallpox vaccinee -Washington, 2010.

“On March 1, 2010, the Washington State Department of Health (WADOH) notified Public Health – Seattle & King County (PHSKC) of a suspected case of contact transmission of vaccinia virus from sexual contact with a member of the military who had been vaccinated against smallpox. Vaccinia virus infection after sexual contact has been reported previously (1-4). Despite the patient’s exposure history and clinical presentation, the diagnosis initially was not considered by the patient’s physician, who ordered laboratory testing for several common sexually transmitted infections. The patient was seen by a second physician and referred to an infectious disease specialist, who obtained a swab sample of a genital lesion for laboratory testing for vaccinia virus. Vaccinia virus was confirmed by the Washington State Public Health Laboratory (WAPHL) and the CDC Poxvirus Laboratory. The patient resided in a household with an immunosuppressed renal transplant recipient. Appropriate contact precautions were recommended to the patient. No additional cases of contact transmission were reported. This report describes the patient’s clinical course and the associated epidemiologic investigation. Health-care providers caring for U.S. military personnel or their contacts should consider vaccinia virus infection in the differential diagnosis of clinically compatible genital lesions. Contact precautions should be emphasized to all persons who are vaccinated, as well as their contacts with unexplained lesions that might represent vaccinia infection from contact transmission.”

#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Sexual #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20592687/

[Vaccinia virus infection with eyelid and vulvar localization appearing after indirect contact with a recently vaccinated subject. Clinical and virological study].

No abstract available
PMID 4097683

#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Transmission #Eyes #Ophthalmological #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/4097683/

[Virus diseases of the external female genitals. 3. Innoculation vaccinia (localized accidental vaccinias, vaccinia vulvitis].

No abstract available
PMID 5518030

#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/5518030/

Vulval vaccinia.

No abstract available
PMID 4821486

#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/4821486/

Vulvar vaccinia infection after sexual contact with a military smallpox vaccinee–Alaska, 2006.

“On October 10, 2006, an otherwise healthy woman visited a public health clinic in Alaska after vaginal tears that she had first experienced 10 days before became increasingly painful. The patient reported having a new male sex partner during September 22-October 1, 2006. A viral swab specimen from a labial lesion of the woman was submitted to the Alaska State Virology Laboratory (ASVL) for viral culture. The viral isolate could not be identified initially and subsequently was sent to CDC on January 9, 2007, where the isolate was identified as a vaccine-strain vaccinia virus. After vaccinia was identified, investigators interviewed the woman more closely and learned that her new sex partner was a male U.S. military service member stationed at a local military base. Further investigation determined that the service member had been vaccinated for smallpox 3 days before beginning his relationship with the woman. This report describes the clinical evaluation of the woman and laboratory testing performed to identify the isolate. Health-care providers should be aware of the possibility of vaccinia infection in persons with clinically compatible genital lesions who have had recent contact with smallpox vaccinees.”

#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Sexual #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17476203/

Vulvar vaccinia infection after sexual contact with a smallpox vaccinee.

“The United States ceased generalized smallpox vaccination in 1972 but reinstated it in 2002 for military personnel and selected healthcare workers (first responders who may be investigating possible cases of smallpox or caring for patients in selected hospitals) after the 2001 bioterrorism attacks. Since reinstitution of the vaccine, reports of transmission of vaccinia virus through contact with military smallpox vaccinees have been published, including four cases of female genital infection. We report a subsequent case of vulvar vaccinia infection acquired during sexual contact with a military vaccinee.”

#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Sexual #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19365178/