Absence of antibodies to HTLV-III in health workers after hepatitis B vaccination.
“A proportion of the plasma for the triply inactivated, plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine produced in the United States is obtained from homosexual men. Because homosexual men are a high-risk group for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), concern has emerged that the vaccine could harbor the AIDS agent.”
The African polio vaccine-acquired immune deficiency syndrome connection.
“Seroepidemiological, clinical and molecular findings suggest that the acquired immune deficiency syndrome virus human immunodeficiency virus-1 was introduced into the human species at the time (late 1950s) and in the geographic area (Zaire) in which millions of Africans were vaccinated with attenuated poliomyelitis virus strains that were produced in kidney tissue obtained from monkeys. Since monkeys not only harbor viruses that are remarkably similar to and genetically related to human immunodeficiency virus-1, but also served as tissue donors for the African polio vaccine, it is reasonable to suspect that a then non-detectable monkey virus with human-1-like properties was unknowingly co-cultured with the attenuated poliovirus virus and subsequently administered to the vaccinees. The possibility of such a polio vaccine-acquired immune deficiency syndrome connection is a reminder of the unpredictable danger of artifically crossing natural species-barriers in biomedical laboratories.”
(Article not vaccine related)
AIDS Virus Traced to Chimp Subspecies
“Most AIDS researchers have long believed that HIV-1, the main form of the AIDS virus, jumped from chimpanzees into humans, but there have been scant data to support this thesis. Now researchers have pieced together what is being hailed as the best case yet for the chimpanzee connection. The genetic detective work–described in the keynote speech here at the opening of the largest annual AIDS conference held in the United States and published in this week’s issue of Nature –indicates that different subspecies of chimps harbor different strains of HIV-like viruses, and that one particular chimp subspecies found in a region that includes Gabon, Cameroon, and Equatorial Guinea is the source of human HIV-1 infections.”
? Bridging the gap: human diploid cell strains and the origin of AIDS.
“Although the theory of a chimpanzee origin of HIV-1 with cross-species transfer to man has now gained popularity, a more likely scenario is that chimps and humans were infected by an HIV-1 precursor virus derived from a contaminated poliovaccine. The reason for the rapidity and ease of cross-species transfer of this precursor virus has not been elucidated. We hypothesize that the poliovaccine was passaged in a human diploid cell strain.”
? Full article here –
? The cost of unsafe injections.
“Unsafe injection practices are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, particularly from hepatitis B and C and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections.”
“Annually more than 1.3 million deaths and US$ 535 million are estimated to be due to current unsafe injection practices. With the global increase in the number of injections for vaccination and medical services, safer injecting technologies such as auto-disable syringes must be budgeted for.”
Don’t ignore the risk of vaccine contamination
“Sir, Your News and Opinion articles about alleged contamination of vaccines should serve as a warning against over-optimism.
These articles highlight the failure to show any evidence for contamination of Wistar Institute polio vaccine stocks by human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV/SIV), and you appeal for a truce. But — although Edward Hooper is quoted as saying that “vaccine samples released did not include any from batches prepared for use in Africa” — lymphocytes have been detected in other polio vaccines. Half of the vervet monkeys in Southern Africa are SIV positive; these animals were used for preparing early polio vaccines.
Considering the many millions of vaccine doses prepared in primary vervet monkey kidney cultures over a 30-year period, it is inconceivable that some SIV did not contaminate many cultures. By the same yardstick, simian virus 40 (SV40) contaminated millions of doses of poliovirus vaccine until the animals were screened for this tumour virus.
Edward Hooper and others surely do not intend to undermine the polio vaccine efforts. What is needed is a new awareness of the need for caution — remembering the example of BSE — in view of the current impetus towards xenotransplantation and the accompanying danger of contamination. Our aim should be to improve our vaccines, not to undermine public confidence in them.”
Experimental oral polio vaccines and acquired immune deficiency syndrome.
The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) of the common chimpanzee is widely acknowledged as the direct ancestor of HIV-1. There is increasing historical evidence that during the late 1950s, kidneys were routinely excised from central African chimpanzees by scientists who were collaborating with the polio vaccine research of Dr Hilary Koprowski, and sent – inter alia – to vaccine-making laboratories in the USA and Africa, and to unspecified destinations in Belgium. While there is no direct evidence that cells from these kidneys were used as a substrate for growing Dr Koprowski’s oral polio vaccines, there is a startling coincidence between places in Africa where his CHAT vaccine was fed, and the first appearances in the world of HIV-1 group M and group-M-related AIDS. Because of the enormous implications of the hypothesis that AIDS may be an unintended iatrogenic (physician-caused) disease, it is almost inevitable that this theory will engender heated opposition from many of those in the scientific establishment, and those with vested interests.
? Hepatitis B Vaccines—to Switch or Not to Switch
“Shortly after the licensure of Heptavax-B in 1981 and its general availability in July 1982, the discovery of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among male homosexuals threatened the success of this product, since some of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive plasma donors were members of this high-risk group. Intensive epidemiologic, virological, and serological evaluations were launched, which eventually found no evidence for the transmission of AIDS to recipients of the plasma-derived HBsAg vaccine.”
Hepatitis vaccine pluses outweigh threat of AIDS.
Fraser B. Dent Stud. 1983.
No abstract available
The injection century: massive unsterile injections and the emergence of human pathogens.
“Unsterile medical injections are common in the less-developed world, where most visits to a doctor result in the (generally unnecessary) administration of intramuscular, or subcutaneous drugs. WHO estimates1 that every year unsafe injections result in 80 000–160 000 new HIV-1 infections, 8·16 million hepatitis B infections, and 2·3–4·7 million hepatitis C infections worldwide (this figure does not include transfusions). Together, these illnesses account for 1·3 million deaths and 23 million years of lost life.”
? Injection Safety Practice among Health Workers in Static Immunisation Centres in an Urban Community of Nigeria.
“However, reports have it that about one-third of immunisation injections are unsafe in many countries of the world including Africa.”
“The common infections associated with unsafe injection listed by the subjects were abscess, HIV and Hepatitis in that order of frequency.”
“Re-use of syringe for vaccine withdrawal and re-capping of used needles before discard were common practices observed while accidental needle stick injury was reported by about half (49%) of the subjects.”
? The origin of acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Can science afford to ignore it?
“Scientific discussion of the polio vaccine hypothesis for the origin of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been systematically suppressed for more than 12 years. The author calls for an international multidisciplinary inquiry into the origin of AIDS, arguing it is essential to human health, prevention of new pandemics, and to protect the integrity of science in the eyes of the public.”
Full article here:
(Article not vaccine related)
Origin of HIV-1 in the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes.
“The human AIDS viruses human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2) represent cross-species (zoonotic) infections. Although the primate reservoir of HIV-2 has been clearly identified as the sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys), the origin of HIV-1 remains uncertain. Viruses related to HIV-1 have been isolated from the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), but only three such SIVcpz infections have been documented, one of which involved a virus so divergent that it might represent a different primate lentiviral lineage. In a search for the HIV-1 reservoir, we have now sequenced the genome of a new SIVcpzstrain (SIVcpzUS) and have determined, by mitochondrial DNA analysis, the subspecies identity of all known SIVcpz-infected chimpanzees. We find that two chimpanzee subspecies in Africa, the central P. t. troglodytes and the eastern P. t. schweinfurthii, harbour SIVcpz and that their respective viruses form two highly divergent (but subspecies-specific) phylogenetic lineages. All HIV-1 strains known to infect man, including HIV-1 groups M, N and O, are closely related to just one of these SIVcpz lineages, that found in P. t. troglodytes. Moreover, we find that HIV-1 group N is a mosaic of SIVcpzUS- and HIV-1-related sequences, indicating an ancestral recombination event in a chimpanzee host. These results, together with the observation that the natural range of P. t. troglodytes coincides uniquely with areas of HIV-1 group M, N and O endemicity, indicate that P. t. troglodytes is the primary reservoir for HIV-1 and has been the source of at least three independent introductions of SIVcpz into the human population.”
? Polio, hepatitis B and AIDS: an integrative theory on a possible vaccine induced pandemic.
“The hypothesis that simian virus 40 (SV40) infected polio vaccines may be linked to the evolution of acquired immunodeficiency disorder (AIDS), and certain cancers, has been advanced. Most recently, investigators discussed the likelihood of gene-reshuffling following SV40 infection as a precursor to acquired immune dysfunction. Findings of recent SV40 infections in four children born after 1982 suggest infections were transmitted vertically along gene lines. Earlier observations proved activation of a retrovirus gene by a hepatitis B virus (HBV) protein. This paper proposes a new integrative theory on the origin of AIDS. It advances the possibility of genetic recombinations with oncogene activation by HBV involving simian viruses that likely infected polio vaccinated blood donors to the initial hepatitis B (HB) vaccine trials conducted on gay men in New York City and Ugandan Blacks in the early to mid-1970s. The socio-economic and even military ramifications associated with this politically challenging thesis are discussed.”
Full article here-
Polio vaccine and retroviruses
Polio vaccines and the origin of AIDS.
“In particular, it is now known that the early polio vaccines were contaminated with at least one monkey virus, SV40. The transfer of monkey viruses to man via contaminated vaccines is particularly relevant to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), since the causative agent of AIDS, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is thought to be derived from a simian precursor virus. Furthermore, human infection with this virus appears to be a relatively recent event. We hypothesize that the AIDS pandemic may have originated with a contaminated polio vaccine that was administered to inhabitants of Equatorial Africa from 1957 to 1959. The mechanism of evolution of HIV from this vaccine remains to be determined.”
Possible origins of AIDS.
Prevalence, incidence, and progression of human immunodeficiency virus infection in homosexual and bisexual men in hepatitis B vaccine trials, 1978-1988.
Progression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection among homosexual men in hepatitis B vaccine trial cohorts in Amsterdam, New York City, and San Francisco, 1978-1991.
The Risk of AIDS After Hepatitis Vaccination
“In the recent decision analysis article by Sacks et al1 in the Dec 28, 1984, issue of The Journal, the authors claim to have calculated the maximum rate of hepatitis B vaccine-induced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) to be eight per 100,000 with 95% confidence. This calculation is based on a study of 40,000 persons who had been vaccinated prior to mid-1982. I do not believe that an extrapolation from this population can be expected to hold true for a vaccine manufactured from today’s pool of donors.”
Should the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome deter hepatitis B vaccination? A decision analysis.
“The current epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and fear that its causative agent contaminates the currently available hepatitis B vaccine may have deterred vaccine use. We formulated a decision-analytic model that compares the risk of death from hepatitis B and AIDS in those vaccinated with the risk of death from hepatitis B alone in those who wait two years for a synthetic vaccine. For individuals with 5% annual risk of hepatitis B, the best current estimate is that vaccination now would save 25 lives per 100,000. The best current estimate of the rate of vaccine-induced AIDS is zero, and one can be 95% confident that the rate is less than eight per 100,000. The rate would have to be considerably higher before postponement of vaccination would be rational for those for whom vaccination has been recommended.”
Suffolk County to conduct test of special safety syringes.
“The syringes will be used in administering vaccines and performing routine medical health procedures in the public health department and jail. The study was prompted by several cases in which health-care workers accidentally or carelessly exposed patients to HIV and other blood-borne diseases through the reuse of syringes labeled for one-time use.”