Measles

Abnormal measles-mumps-rubella antibodies and CNS autoimmunity in children with autism.

#Autism #MMR #Autoimmunity #Measles #Vaccine
#MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/12145534/

🛑 Adventitious agents in viral vaccines: Lessons learned from 4 case studies 

“The four cases are: a) SV40 in polio vaccines; b) bacteriophage in measles and polio vaccines; c) reverse transcriptase in measles and mumps vaccines; and d) porcine circovirus and porcine circovirus DNA sequences in rotavirus vaccines.”

#Contamination #SV40 #Polio #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch
#Rotavirus #Measles #MMR

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1045105614000748

🛑 Adverse events associated with childhood vaccines other than pertussis and rubella. Summary of a report from the Institute of Medicine. 

“The committee found that the evidence favored acceptance of a causal relation between diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and Guillain-Barré syndrome and brachial neuritis, between measles vaccine and anaphylaxis, between oral polio vaccine and Guillain-Barré syndrome, and between unconjugated Hib vaccine and susceptibility to Hib disease. The committee found that the evidence established causality between diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and anaphylaxis, between measles vaccine and death from measles vaccine-strain viral infection, between measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and thrombocytopenia and anaphylaxis, between oral polio vaccine and poliomyelitis and death from polio vaccine-strain viral infection, and between hepatitis B vaccine and anaphylaxis.”

#Death #Guillain #Barre #Polio #Anaphylaxis #Hib #Failure #Tetanus #MMR #Measles #Polio #Hepatitis B #Thrombocytopenia
#Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8182813/

Anaphylaxis following single component measles and rubella immunisation.

“Anaphylaxis as an adverse event following immunisation (AEFI) is a rare occurrence. We report four cases of anaphylaxis following administration of single component measles or rubella vaccine between January 2003 and June 2007. We estimate that the incidence of anaphylaxis to measles and rubella single component vaccines is 18.9 and 22.4 cases/100,000 doses, respectively. These figures are likely to be an underestimate but are higher than expected. Our calculations were hampered by lack of immunisation reporting data from the private sector. We recommend that NHS standards of vaccine data reporting are also applied to private clinics.”

#Anaphylaxis #Measles #Rubella #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18941022/

Beware of ‘lookalikes’. (2017)

“In 2014, health staff who were vaccinating children in rebel-held northern Syria accidentally administered a muscle relaxant, atracurium, to up to 75 children, killing 15 of them. An investigation found that the drug was given to the children instead of a solution used to mix measles vaccines because the packaging was similar.”

#Death #Error #Measles #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28198315/

CASE OF VACCINE-ASSOCIATED MEASLES FIVE WEEKS POST-IMMUNISATION

#Measles #Shedding
#Vaccine #Failure #MedScienceResearch

http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=20649

Comparison of neutralizing antibody titers against outbreak-associated measles genotypes (D4, H1 and B3) in Iran.

“Despite the accessibility of a promising vaccine, outbreaks of the measles virus (MV) take place even in well-vaccinated populations.”

#Measles #Vaccine #Failure #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27777263/

Confusing drug packaging contributes to death of 15 children.

“At least 15 children have died after being vaccinated against measles in northern Syria, owing to accidental injection of atracurium.1 The seriousness of this particular event is compounded by the fact that the deaths were associated with vaccination in a population in the midst of civil war whose trust in western medicine is already fragile.”

#Death #Error #Measles #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

http://www.thelancet.com/journals/langlo/article/PIIS2214-109X(14)70328-6/abstract

Contamination of Reconstituted Multidose Measles Vaccine Vial and Toxic Shock Syndrome in Tamilnadu

#Contamination #Death #Measles #Error #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

http://www.indianpediatrics.net/july2008/606.pdf

Continuing measles transmission in students despite school-based outbreak control program.

“Forty-six cases occurred among students more than two weeks after control program implementation. All 46 had a school record indicating adequate measles vaccination; 13 had been vaccinated at control program clinics by one jet-injector team (Team A).”

#Measles #Vaccine #Failure
#MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/4014205/

Detection of measles vaccine in the throat of a vaccinated child.

“Measles vaccine is widely used, most often in association with mumps and rubella vaccines. We report here the case of a child presenting with fever 8 days after vaccination with a measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. Measles virus was isolated in a throat swab taken 4 days after fever onset. This virus was then further genetically characterised as a vaccine-type virus. Fever occurring subsequent to measles vaccination is related to the replication of the live attenuated vaccine virus. In the case presented here, the vaccine virus was isolated in the throat, showing that subcutaneous injection of an attenuated measles strain can result in respiratory excretion of this virus.”

#Shedding #Measles #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/11858860/

Detection of measles virus RNA in urine specimens from vaccine recipients.

“Analysis of urine specimens by using reverse transcriptase-PCR was evaluated as a rapid assay to identify individuals infected with measles virus. For the study, daily urine samples were obtained from either 15-month-old children or young adults following measles immunization. Overall, measles virus RNA was detected in 10 of 12 children during the 2-week sampling period. In some cases, measles virus RNA was detected as early as 1 day or as late as 14 days after vaccination. Measles virus RNA was also detected in the urine samples from all four of the young adults between 1 and 13 days after vaccination. This assay will enable continued studies of the shedding and transmission of measles virus and, it is hoped, will provide a rapid means to identify measles infection, especially in mild or asymptomatic cases.”

#Shedding #Measles #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC228449/

🛑 Differentiating the wild from the attenuated during a measles outbreak.

“In the midst of a local measles outbreak, a recently immunized child was investigated for a new-onset measles-type rash. Nucleic acid testing identified that a vaccine-type measles virus was being shed in the urine.”

#Shedding #Measles #Vaccine #Failure #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23543773/

🛑 DTaP with or after measles vaccination increased in-hospital mortality in Guinea-Bissau. 

“RESULT: The case fatality was increased for children who had received DTP with or after measles vaccine compared with children who had received measles vaccine as the most recent vaccine, the ratio being 2.53 (1.37-4.67) and 1.77 (0.92-3.41) in the two periods, respectively.”

#Death #DTaP #DTP #Measles #MMR #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17092614

Elevated levels of measles antibodies in children with autism.

“Thus autistic children have a hyperimmune response to measles virus, which in the absence of a wild type of measles infection might be a sign of an abnormal immune reaction to the vaccine strain or virus reactivation.”

#Autism #MMR #Measles #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/12849883/

[Explosive occurrence of measles in a vaccinated population (author’s transl)].

Markvart K, et al. Cesk Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol. 1977.

No abstract available
PMID 140009

#Measles #Vaccine #Failure #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/140009/

Explosive school-based measles outbreak: intense exposure may have resulted in high risk, even among revaccinees.

“Even high levels of measles vaccination coverage have not always prevented outbreaks of measles spread by airborne transmission. It has been suggested that a large inoculum might increase vaccine failure risk. Airbome transmission might occasionally entail a large measles inoculum. The epidemiologic relevance of measles among properly vaccinated persons (i.e., those vaccinated after 15 months of age and with live attenuated virus) is increased when they become contagious. The authors studied inoculum intensities as measured by proxy variables and the contagiousness of properly vaccinated persons who contracted measles among 51 measles patients infected in one school, at home, or elsewhere, utilizing preexisting records of measles cases and 214 healthy controls from an explosive school outbreak that occurred in a rural Finnish municipality in 1989. One “super-spreader” infected 22 others in one day, including eight once-vaccinated students and one twice-vaccinated student, probably during an assembly of 144 students in a poorly ventilated hallway with no sunlight. Those infected later at home had high measles risk, even if they were revaccinees. When siblings shared a bedroom with a measles case, a 78 percent risk (seven out of nine children) was observed among vaccinees. Vaccinees had approximately 2 days’ shorter incubation time than unvaccinated persons. Vaccinated and unvaccinated students were equally able to infect their siblings. Total protection against measles might not be achievable, even among revaccinees, when children are confronted with intense exposure to measles virus.”

#Shedding #Measles
#Vaccine #Failure #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/9850133/

Failure to reach the goal of measles elimination. Apparent paradox of measles infections in immunized persons.

“RESULTS: We found 18 reports of measles outbreaks in very highly immunized school populations where 71% to 99.8% of students were immunized against measles. Despite these high rates of immunization, 30% to 100% (mean, 77%) of all measles cases in these outbreaks occurred in previously immunized students. In our hypothetical school model, after more than 95% of schoolchildren are immunized against measles, the majority of measles cases occur in appropriately immunized children.

CONCLUSIONS: The apparent paradox is that as measles immunization rates rise to high levels in a population, measles becomes a disease of immunized persons. Because of the failure rate of the vaccine and the unique transmissibility of the measles virus, the currently available measles vaccine, used in a single-dose strategy, is unlikely to completely eliminate measles. The long-term success of a two-dose strategy to eliminate measles remains to be determined.”

#Measles #Vaccine #Failure #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8053748/?i=6

Fatal adult respiratory distress syndrome in a scalded child after immunization with attenuated virus (measles, mumps and rubella).

“A fatal adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) occurred in a 15-month-old child who had suffered minor scalding during the febrile response to combined attenuated virus immunization (measles, mumps and rubella [MMR]). Despite vigorous efforts the child died 26 days after the accident. It is suggested that the scalding suppressed the normal immune response to the viremia and that the latter (i.e. most likely the measles viremia) caused the lung damage which, in turn, led to the ARDS.”

#Death #MMR #Measles #Vaccine
#Respiratory #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7275679/

Is measles vaccination a risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease?

Thompson NP, et al. Lancet. 1995.

“Measles virus may persist in intestinal tissue, particularly that affected by Crohn’s disease, and early exposure to measles may be a risk factor for the development of Crohn’s disease. Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis occur in the same families and may share a common aetiology. In view of the rising incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis), we examined the impact of measles vaccination upon these conditions. Prevalences of Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, coeliac disease, and peptic ulceration were determined in 3545 people who had received live measles vaccine in 1964 as part of a measles vaccine trial. A longitudinal birth cohort of 11,407 subjects was one unvaccinated comparison cohort, and 2541 partners of those vaccinated was another. Compared with the birth cohort, the relative risk of developing Crohn’s disease in the vaccinated group was 3.01 (95% CI 1.45-6.23) and of developing ulcerative colitis was 2.53 (1.15-5.58). There was no significant difference between these two groups in coeliac disease prevalence. Increased prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease, but not coeliac disease or peptic ulceration, was found in the vaccinated cohort compared with their partners. These findings suggest that measles virus may play a part in the development not only of Crohn’s disease but also of ulcerative colitis.”

#Measles #Vaccine #Crohns #Ulcerative #Colitis #Gastrointestinal #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7715338/

A limited measles outbreak in a highly vaccinated US boarding school.

#Measles #Vaccine #Failure #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16322148

Local public health response to vaccine-associated measles: case report.

“A five-year-old Canadian-born boy with a history of a hematopoetic stem cell transplant three years previously received live attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine. Over the subsequent 7 to 14 days, he developed an illness clinically consistent with measles. There was no travel history or other measles exposure. Serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing confirmed acute measles infection.”

#Measles #Vaccine #Failure #MMR #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23531102/

Major measles epidemic in the region of Quebec despite a 99% vaccine coverage

“Vaccination coverage for the total population was 99.0%. Incomplete vaccination coverage is not a valid explanation for the Quebec City measles outbreak.”

#Measles #Vaccine #Failure #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1884314/

Measles inclusion-body encephalitis caused by the vaccine strain of measles virus.

“We report a case of measles inclusion-body encephalitis (MIBE) occurring in an apparently healthy 21-month-old boy 8.5 months after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. He had no prior evidence of immune deficiency and no history of measles exposure or clinical disease. During hospitalization, a primary immunodeficiency characterized by a profoundly depressed CD8 cell count and dysgammaglobulinemia was demonstrated. A brain biopsy revealed histopathologic features consistent with MIBE, and measles antigens were detected by immunohistochemical staining. Electron microscopy revealed inclusions characteristic of paramyxovirus nucleocapsids within neurons, oligodendroglia, and astrocytes. The presence of measles virus in the brain tissue was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The nucleotide sequence in the nucleoprotein and fusion gene regions was identical to that of the Moraten and Schwarz vaccine strains; the fusion gene differed from known genotype A wild-type viruses.”

#Measles #MMR #Immune
#Encephalitis #MIBE
#Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/10589903/

Measles outbreak in a fully immunized secondary-school population.

“An outbreak of measles occurred among adolescents in Corpus Christi, Texas, in the spring of 1985, even though vaccination requirements for school attendance had been thoroughly enforced. Serum samples from 1806 students at two secondary schools were obtained eight days after the onset of the first case. Only 4.1 percent of these students (74 of 1806) lacked detectable antibody to measles according to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and more than 99 percent had records of vaccination with live measles vaccine. Stratified analysis showed that the number of doses of vaccine received was the most important predictor of antibody response. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals of seronegative rates were 0 to 3.3 percent for students who had received two prior doses of vaccine, as compared with 3.6 to 6.8 percent for students who had received only a single dose. After the survey, none of the 1732 seropositive students contracted measles. Fourteen of 74 seronegative students, all of whom had been vaccinated, contracted measles. In addition, three seronegative students seroconverted without experiencing any symptoms. We conclude that outbreaks of measles can occur in secondary schools, even when more than 99 percent of the students have been vaccinated and more than 95 percent are immune.”

#Measles #Vaccine #Failure
#MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/3821823/

A measles outbreak in a middle school with high vaccination coverage and evidence of prior immunity among cases, Beijing, P.R. China.

#Measles #Vaccine #Failure #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/26589518

Measles outbreak in a vaccinated population in Dhankutta.

“A measles outbreak occurred in Dhankutta town in year 2056 Falgun to 2057 Baishak (3 months). A total of 130 cases were registered at the Dhankutta District Hospital. A large proportion of the cases had severe disease with complications and were admitted at the hospital. None of the patients registered at the hospital died. Interestingly, 50.0% of cases were in higher age group (10 years and above) which is an unusual trend in developing countries. All the cases gave history of measles vaccination, which points towards the need for investigation of vaccine efficacy and cold chain efficiency.”

#Measles #Vaccine #Failure #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16583967/

Measles Vaccine Deaths– The IAP-COI Stand

“On April 23, 2008, four children died soon after receiving measles vaccine stored in ice boxes in vaccination camps in two villages in Thiruvallur district of Tamil Nadu. As per parents and other eye witnesses, all children developed frothing at the mouth, drooping of the head, rolling of eye balls and died within 15 – 20 minutes of vaccination. No resuscitative equipment was available on site(1).”

#Death #Measles #Vaccine #Error #MMR #MedScienceResearch

http://www.indianpediatrics.net/june2008/479.pdf

Nonfebrile Seizures after Mumps, Measles, Rubella, and Varicella-Zoster Virus Combination Vaccination with Detection of Measles Virus RNA in Serum, Throat, and Urine

#MMRV #Seizures #Shedding #Measles #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3697452/

Outbreak of aseptic meningitis associated with mass vaccination with a urabe-containing measles-mumps-rubella vaccine: implications for immunization programs.

#Meningitis #MMR #Measles #Mumps #Rubella #Vaccine #Failure #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/10707922/

Outbreak of measles among persons with prior evidence of immunity, New York City, 2011.

#Measles #Vaccine #Failure
#MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/24585562/

Postpartum live virus vaccination: lessons from veterinary medicine.

“Pregnant rubella-susceptible women are often revaccinated during the postpartum period with the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella vaccine (MMR). It is known that the rubella virus from vaccine is secreted in breast milk and persists in the nose and throat for up to 28 days but it is not known whether the measles and mumps viruses are similarly secreted. It is probable the measles virus from vaccine is.”

#Breastfeeding #Shedding
#Rubella #MMR
#Veterinary #Measles
#Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/12208153/

Post-vaccine measles in a child with concomitant influenza, Sicily, Italy, March 2015.

#Measles #Vaccine #Failure #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/26027483

Postvaccinal parkinsonism.

#Parkinsons #Neurological
#Measles #Vaccine
#MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1350062/

[Rapid identification of Beijing measles vaccine virus and wild virus by multiplex real-time fluorescent PCR].

“Out of the 16 measles patients with vaccination history, 3 were negative and the other 13 all belonged to measles virus genotype A, and were confirmed to be vaccine virus by sequencing method.”

#Shedding #Measles #Vaccine #Failure #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23363872/

A report of outbreaks of measles on the southern coast of Iran from 2009 to 2015. (2017)

“A high percentage of cases with measles in rural areas were reported in the areas which were covered by complete vaccination.”

#Measles #Vaccine #Failure
#MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28461876/

Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy and Adie’s pupil after measles vaccination.

“Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome is an increasingly recognized disorder with typical radiologic findings of bilateral gray- and white-matter abnormalities in the posterior regions of the cerebral hemispheres. The majority of patients with reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome are adults, and it is rare in children. Previously reported associations of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome include hypertension, vasculitis, nephrotic syndrome, severe hypercalcemia, hemolytic uremic syndrome, eclampsia, renal failure, and use of immunosuppressive drugs. Adie’s pupil is described as the presence of a large unilateral or bilateral tonic pupil related to virus infections or trauma. In this article, we describe a case of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy and Adie’s pupil association that occurred after measles vaccination. To our knowledge, this association has not been reported.”

#Measles #Vaccine #Neurological
#MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16948940/

Risk factors for measles vaccine failure among immunized students.

“An outbreak of measles occurred in a municipal school system which had reported 98% of students immunized against measles. A case-control study was conducted to determine reasons for vaccine failure. Vaccine failure was associated with immunizations that could not be documented in the provider’s records. Among children with provider-documented immunization, vaccine failure was associated with vaccination at 12 to 14 months of age with an odds ratio of 4.73. Among children vaccinated at 15 months or older, vaccine failure was not associated with time elapsed since vaccination. Studies should be conducted to determine whether unreliable immunization records are a more widespread problem. Further consideration should be given to routine revaccination of children previously vaccinated at 12 to 14 months of age.”

#Measles #Vaccine #Failure
#MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/4047794/

Secondary measles vaccine failures identified by measurement of IgG avidity: high occurrence among teenagers vaccinated at a young age.

#Measles #Vaccine #Failure #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/10813152/

Spotlight on measles 2010: excretion of vaccine strain measles virus in urine and pharyngeal secretions of a child with vaccine associated febrile rash illness, Croatia, March 2010.

#Measles #Shedding #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20822734/

Toxic shock syndrome: an unforeseen complication following measles vaccination.

No abstract available

PMID 1748516

#Measles #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1748516/

Transient bulging fontanelle after measles vaccination.

#Measles #Vaccine #Bulging #Fontanelle #MedScienceResearch

http://www.indianpediatrics.net/aug2014/673.pdf

Transmission of measles among a highly vaccinated school population–
Anchorage, Alaska, 1998.

“During August 10-November 23, 1998, 33 confirmed measles cases were reported to the Anchorage Department of Health and Human Services and the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (ADHSS). Of these, 26 cases were confirmed by positive rubeola IgM antibody test, and seven met the clinical case definition. This was the largest outbreak of measles in the United States since 1996. This report summarizes results of the epidemiologic investigation conducted by ADHSS and underscores the importance of second-dose requirements for measles vaccine.”

#Measles #Vaccine #Failure
#Waning #Immunity #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/9921727/

🛑 [Vaccines, biotechnology and their connection with induced abortion].

“Diploid cells (WI-38, MRC-5) vaccines have their origin in induced abortions. Among these vaccines we fi nd the following: rubella, measles, mumps, rabies, polio, smallpox, hepatitis A, chickenpox, and herpes zoster. Nowadays, other abortion tainted vaccines cultivated on transformed cells (293, PER.C6) are in the pipeline: flu, Respiratory Syncytial and parainfluenza viruses, HIV, West Nile virus, Ebola, Marburg and Lassa, hepatitis B and C, foot and mouth disease, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, tuberculosis, anthrax, plague, tetanus and malaria. The same method is used for the production of monoclonal antibodies and other proteins, gene therapy and genomics. Technology enables us to develop the aforementioned products without resorting to induced abortion. Full disclosure of the cell origin in the labelling of vaccines and other products must be supported. There are vaccines from non-objectionable sources which should be made available to the public. When no alternative vaccines exist, ethical research must be promoted. Non-objectionable sources in the production of monoclonal antibodies, gene therapy and genomics must be encouraged. It is not be consistent to abstain from products originated in embryonic stem cells and at the same time approve of products obtained from induced abortions. It is of paramount importance to avoid that induced abortion technology seeps into every field of Medicine.”

#Abortion #Aborted #Fetal #Cells #MMR #Rubella #Measles #Mumps #Rabies #Polio #Smallpox #Hepatitis A #Chickenpox #Herpes #Zoster #Shingles
#Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18611078/

Variability in Humoral Immunity to Measles Vaccine: New Developments.

“Despite the existence of an effective measles vaccine, resurgence in measles cases in the USA and across Europe has occurred, including in individuals vaccinated with two doses of the vaccine.”

#Measles #Failure #MMR
#HLA #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/26602762/

What is the cause of a rash after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination?

“We describe a 17-month-old child with fever and rash after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. Detection of vaccine-strain
measles virus in his urine by poly
merase chain reaction confirmed the diagnosis of a vaccine reaction rather than wild-type measles. We propose that measles virus should be sought and identified as vaccine or wild-type virus when the relationship between vaccination and measles-like illness is uncertain.”

#Vaccine #Failure #Shedding #MMR #Measles #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/10494235