Adjuvant activity of a novel metabolizable lipid emulsion with inactivated viral vaccines.

“The lipid base consists of highly refined peanut oil emulsified in aqueous vaccines with glycerol and lecithin.”

#Peanut #Animal #Vaccine #Veterinary #MedScienceResearch

Adjuvants- and vaccines-induced autoimmunity: animal models.

“In some cases, adjuvants may trigger generalized autoimmune response, resulting in multiple auto-antibodies, but sometimes they can reproduce human autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, autoimmune thyroiditis and antiphospholipid syndrome and may provide insights about the potential adverse effects of adjuvants.”

#Thyroid #Arthritis #Lupus #Sjogren #Autoimmunity #Antiphospholipid #Animals #Veterinary #Musculoskeletal #Neurological #Vaccine

Adverse events diagnosed within three days of vaccine administration in dogs.

“RESULTS: 4,678 adverse events (38.2/10,000 dogs vaccinated) were associated with administration of 3,439,576 doses of vaccine to 1,226,159 dogs.”

“Young adult small-breed neutered dogs that received multiple vaccines per office visit were at greatest risk of a VAAE within 72 hours after vaccination.”

#Veterinary #Animals #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Anaphylaxis in dogs and cats.

“Anaphylaxis may be triggered by a variety of antigens including insect and reptile venom, a variety of drugs, vaccines, and food.”

#Anaphylaxis #Animals #Veterinary #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Autoimmune/autoinflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA syndrome) in commercial sheep.

#Animal #ASIA #Autoimmunity #Veterinary #Neurological #Aluminum #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Autoimmunity in spontaneous myasthenia gravis in dogs.

“The increase in the anti-AChR titer and recurrence of disease signs followed vaccination and an infection.”

#Veterinary #Vaccine

Canine parvovirus post-vaccination shedding: Interference with diagnostic assays and correlation with host immune status.

No abstract available
PMID 28283075

#Shedding #Veterinary #Parvo
#Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Canine rabies in Nigeria, 1970 - 1980 reported cases in vaccinated dogs.

“Of the 14 cases there were 10 cases of apparent vaccine failure involving modified live (low egg passage chick embryo) vaccine in use during the study period. In 4 of these cases, infection may actually have been induced by the vaccine.”

#Rabies #Vaccine #Failure #Veterinary #Animal #MedScienceResearch

Chronic Kidney Disease in Aged Cats: Clinical Features, Morphology, and Proposed Pathogeneses.

“A variety of factors-including aging, ischemia, comorbid conditions, phosphorus overload, and routine vaccinations-have been implicated as factors that could contribute to the initiation of this disease in affected cats.”

#Kidney #CKD #Feline #Vaccine

Comparison of tissue reactions produced by Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae vaccines made with six different adjuvants in swine.

“Tissue damage caused by six different adjuvants incorporated in a Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae vaccine was compared in swine. The adjuvants compared were four mineral oil compounds, one peanut oil compound and aluminum hydroxide.”

#Peanut #Veterinary #Animal #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Effectiveness of a commercial leptospiral vaccine on urinary shedding in naturally exposed sheep in New Zealand.

#Shedding #Veterinary #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

An emergent poxvirus from humans and cattle in Rio de Janeiro State: Cantagalo virus may derive from Brazilian smallpox vaccine.

“Together, the data suggested that CTGV may have derived from VV-IOC by persisting in an indigenous animal(s), accumulating polymorphisms, and now emerging in cattle and milkers as CTGV. CTGV may represent the first case of long-term persistence of vaccinia in the New World.”

#Shedding #Smallpox
#Vaccine #Failure #Veterinary

Endogenous retroviruses as potential hazards for vaccines.

“Retroviruses are classified as exogenous or endogenous according to their mode of transmission. Generally, endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are not pathogenic in their original hosts; however, some ERVs induce diseases. In humans, a novel gammaretrovirus was discovered in patients with prostate cancer or chronic fatigue syndrome. This virus was closely related to xenotropic murine leukemia virus (X-MLV) and designated as xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV). The origin and transmission route of XMRV are still unknown at present; however, XMRV may be derived from ERVs of rodents because X-MLVs are ERVs of inbred and wild mice. Many live attenuated vaccines for animals are manufactured by using cell lines from animals, which are known to produce infectious ERVs; however, the risks of infection by ERVs from xenospecies through vaccination have been ignored. This brief review gives an overview of ERVs in cats, the potential risks of ERV infection by vaccination, the biological characteristics of RD-114 virus (a feline ERV), which possibly contaminates vaccines for companion animals, and the methods for detection of infectious RD-114 virus.

2010 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

#Contamination #Vaccine #XMRV
#Cancer #Chronic #Fatigue #Syndrome #Veterinary

Evidence for immunisation failure in vaccinated adult dogs infected with canine parvovirus type 2c.

#Parvo #Vaccine #Failure #Death #Veterinary #Animals #MedScienceResearch

Faecal shedding of canine parvovirus after modified-live vaccination in healthy adult dogs.

“Despite individual differences, CPV DNA was detectable for up to 28 days after vaccination, although the faecal CPV DNA load in these clinically healthy dogs was very low.”

#Shedding #Parvo #Veterinary #Animal #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

The failure of an inactivated mink enteritis virus vaccine in four preparations to provide protection to dogs against challenge with canine parvovirus-2.

#Vaccine #Failure #Parvo #Veterinary #Animals #MedScienceResearch

Feline Injection-Site Sarcoma.

“Feline injection-site sarcoma (FISS) is an aggressive tumor believed to arise from the proliferation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in areas of chronic inflammation, particularly at sites of injection. Local recurrence is frequent after surgical excision.”

#Cancer #Vaccine #Veterinary

Human and animal vaccine contaminations.

“However, since vaccine preparation involves the use of materials of biological origin, vaccines are subject to contamination by micro-organisms. In fact, vaccine contamination has occurred; a historical example of vaccine contamination, for example, can be found in the early days of development of the smallpox vaccine. The introduction of new techniques of vaccine virus production on cell cultures has lead to safer vaccines, but has not completely removed the risk of virus contamination. There are several examples of vaccine contamination, for example, contamination of human vaccines against poliomyelitis by SV40 virus from the use of monkey primary renal cells. Several veterinary vaccines have been contaminated by pestiviruses from foetal calf serum. These incidents have lead industry to change certain practices and regulatory authorities to develop more stringent and detailed requirements. But the increasing number of target species for vaccines, the diversity of the origin of biological materials and the extremely high number of known and unknown viruses and their constant evolution represent a challenge to vaccine producers and regulatory authorities.”

#Contamination #Smallpox #SV40 #Polio #Pestivirus #Veterinary #Animals #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Human contacts with oral rabies vaccine baits distributed for wildlife rabies management-Ohio, 2012.

“Baits laden with oral rabies vaccines are important for the management of wildlife rabies in the United States. In August 2012, the Wildlife Services program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service began a field trial involving limited distribution of a new oral rabies vaccine bait in five states, including Ohio. The vaccine consisted of live recombinant human adenovirus type 5 vector, expressing rabies virus glycoprotein (AdRG1.3) (Onrab). A previously used oral rabies vaccine consisting of a live recombinant vaccinia vector, expressing rabies virus glycoprotein (V-RG) (Raboral V-RG), was distributed in other areas of Ohio. To monitor human contacts and potential vaccine virus exposure, surveillance was conducted by the Ohio Department of Health, local Ohio health agencies, and CDC. During August 23-September 7, 2012, a total of 776,921 baits were distributed in Ohio over 4,379 square miles (11,341 square kilometers). During August 24-September 12, a total of 89 baits were reported found by the general public, with 55 human contacts with baits identified (some contacts involved more than one bait). In 27 of the 55 human contacts, the bait was not intact, and a barrier (e.g., gloves) had not been used to handle the bait, leaving persons at risk for vaccine exposure and vaccine virus infection. However, no adverse events were reported. Continued surveillance of human contacts with oral rabies vaccine baits and public warnings to avoid contact with baits are needed because of the potential for vaccine virus infection.”

#Rabies #Bait #Veterinary #Vaccine

🛑 Human Illness Associated with Use of Veterinary Vaccines 

“Is human exposure to veterinary vaccines a potential public health concern? There is currently limited understanding of the incidence of exposure of individuals to veterinary vaccines or of the consequences of such exposure. In addition, the potential for exposure and for adverse consequences secondary to exposure to veterinary vaccines may be increasing. The increased development and use of veterinary vaccines (including live vaccines), the increased aerosol administration of vaccines, and the increased proportion of individuals in the United States who are immunosuppressed and who may be exposed to these vaccines or to animals shedding the vaccine strains suggest that increased vigilance may be warranted.”

#Animals #Shedding #Veterinary #Vaccines #MedScienceResearch

Incidence of adverse events in ferrets vaccinated with distemper or rabies vaccine: 143 cases (1995-2001).

“…veterinarians who vaccinate ferrets should be prepared to treat anaphylactic reactions.”

“Adverse events developed within 25 minutes after vaccination in 13 ferrets. One ferret developed an adverse event after receiving a distemper and a rabies vaccine simultaneously and developed a second adverse event the following year after receiving the rabies vaccine alone. Therefore, a total of 14 adverse events were identified. All adverse events were an anaphylactic reaction characterized by generalized hyperemia, hypersalivation, and vomiting. Ten of the 14 anaphylactic reactions occurred after ferrets received both vaccines, 3 occurred after ferrets received the distemper vaccine alone, and 1 occurred after a ferret received the rabies vaccine alone. Incidences of adverse events after administration of both vaccines, the distemper vaccine alone, and the rabies vaccine alone were 5.6, 5.9, and 5.6%, respectively. Ferrets that had an anaphylactic reaction were significantly older at the time of vaccination than were ferrets that did not.”

#Ferrets #Anaphylaxis #Distemper #Rabies #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Isolation and characterization of an adventitious avian leukosis virus isolated from commercial Marek’s disease vaccines.

“The data indicate that commercial MD vaccines produced by two manufacturers were contaminated with endogenous subgroup E and an exogenous subgroup A ALV.”

#Contamination #Animal #Veterinary #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Long-term viremia and fecal shedding in pups after modified-live canine parvovirus vaccination.

#Shedding #Parvo #Animal #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Molecular typing of canine parvovirus strains circulating from 2008 to 2012 in an organized kennel in India reveals the possibility of vaccination failure.

#Parvo #Vaccine #Failure #Veterinary #Animals #MedScienceResearch

Mortality and morbidity among military personnel and civilians during the 1930s and World War II from transmission of hepatitis during yellow fever vaccination: systematic review.

“During World War II, nearly all US and Allied troops received yellow fever vaccine. Until May 1942, it was both grown and suspended in human serum. In April 1942, major epidemics of hepatitis occurred in US and Allied troops who had received yellow fever vaccine. A rapid and thorough investigation by the US surgeon general followed, and a directive was issued discontinuing the use of human serum in vaccine production. The large number of cases of hepatitis caused by the administration of this vaccine could have been avoided. Had authorities undertaken a thorough review of the literature, they would have discovered published reports, as early as 1885, of postvaccination epidemics of hepatitis in both men and horses. It would take 4 additional decades of experiments and epidemiological research before viruses of hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E were identified, their modes of transmission understood, and their genomes sequenced.”

#Contamination #Hepatitis #Yellow #Fever #Veterinary #Military #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Postinflammatory sarcoma in cats.

“Histological examination of 38 nodular formations extirpated from the site of vaccine administration to cats disclosed 25 cases of sarcoma and 13 of granuloma. Average age of the cats bearing sarcoma was 8.75 years whereas granuloma occurred at average age of 1.9 year. This age-relationship of the lesions, as well as their similar morphologic features indicated a progression of chronic inflammatory changes to tumors. Similar tumors were diagnosed in one cat with “posttraumatic ocular sarcoma” and in the uterus of female-cat with long-standing pyometra. These two cats were 15 and 8 years old, respectively. Experimental study of local reaction 21 days after administration of commercial, lipid-adjuvanted vaccine revealed in young cats (age 9 months) a reaction to immunogen, whereas in old animals (age 10 to 15 years) there was a reaction to foreign material. The data suggest that chronic inflammation and age-related immunodeficiency are instrumental in pathogenesis of the vaccine-associated sarcoma.”

#Cancer #Sarcoma #Veterinary #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Postpartum live virus vaccination: lessons from veterinary medicine.

“Pregnant rubella-susceptible women are often revaccinated during the postpartum period with the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella vaccine (MMR). It is known that the rubella virus from vaccine is secreted in breast milk and persists in the nose and throat for up to 28 days but it is not known whether the measles and mumps viruses are similarly secreted. It is probable the measles virus from vaccine is.”

#Breastfeeding #Shedding
#Rubella #MMR
#Veterinary #Measles
#Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Post-vaccinal distemper encephalitis in two Border Collie cross littermates.

“CASE HISTORY: One 4.5-month-old male Border Collie cross presented with aggression and seizures in October 2006. A 16-month-old, female, spayed Border Collie cross presented with hypersalivation and a dropped jaw and rapidly became stuporous in September 2007. The dogs were littermates and developed acute neurological signs 5 and 27 days, respectively, after vaccination with different modified live vaccines containing canine distemper virus.

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS: Sections of brain in both dogs showed evidence of encephalitis mainly centred on the grey matter of brainstem nuclei, where there was extensive and intense parenchymal and perivascular infiltration of histiocytes and lymphocytes. Intra-nuclear and intra-cytoplasmic inclusions typical of distemper were plentiful and there was abundant labelling for canine distemper virus using immunohistochemistry.

DIAGNOSIS: Post-vaccinal canine distemper.

CLINCIAL RELEVANCE: Post-vaccinal canine distemper has mainly been attributed to virulent vaccine virus, but it may also occur in dogs whose immunologic nature makes them susceptible to disease induced by a modified-live vaccine virus that is safe and protective for most dogs.”

#Encephalitis #Distemper #Veterinary #Animals #Neurological #Vaccine #Failure #MedScienceResearch

[Postvaccinal fatal Streptococcus zooepidemicus necrotizing fasciitis in a young dog: a case report].

“A 2.5-years-old female mongrel dog was routinely subcutaneously vaccinated. A few hours later mental dullness was noticed by the owner progressing into stupor the next day and resulting in a comatose state and death within 48 hours after vaccination. At post mortem examination, which was extended with histology and bacteriology, a necrotizing fasciitis and bacteremia caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus were established. In the isolated Streptococcus strain four different superantigens were demonstrated that appeared to be able to produce exotoxins in vitro. Therefore, it is concluded that the minor skin trauma caused by vaccination enabled this strain to gain access to the subcutaneous tissue and to induce a necrotizing fasciitis. This process was complicated with a bacterial septicemia leading to death of the dog within 48 hours.”

#Death #Veterinary #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Reemergence of vaccinia virus during Zoonotic outbreak, Pará State, Brazil.

“In 2010, vaccinia virus caused an outbreak of bovine vaccinia that affected dairy cattle and rural workers in Pará State, Brazil. Genetic analyses identified the virus as distinct from BeAn58058 vaccinia virus (identified in 1960s) and from smallpox vaccine virus strains. These findings suggest spread of autochthonous group 1 vaccinia virus in this region.”

#Shedding #Smallpox
#Vaccine #Failure #Veterinary

Risk Factors for Development of Chronic Kidney Disease in Cats.

“Our study suggests independent associations between both vaccination frequency and severity of dental disease and development of CKD.”

#Kidney #CKD #Feline #Vaccine

🛑 [Smallpox and smallpox virus-200 years since the first vaccination in Norway].

“Cowpox was once a rare disease in cattle, but a total of 70,985 bovine cases were reported between 1889 and 1928. The source of infection was thought to be humans vaccinated against smallpox.”

#Shedding #Smallpox #Veterinary #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

A survey of mycoplasma detection in veterinary vaccines.

“Nine live virus veterinary vaccines from six sources were found to be contaminated with mycoplasma. The vaccines were for use in canine, feline and avian species, and 53 batches of the products were at fault. The isolates were identified as Mycoplasma hominis, M. arginini, M. orale, M. hyorhinis and M. gallinarum.”

#Contamination #Veterinary #Error #Animal #Vaccine #Mycoplasma #MedScienceResearch

Testing for viral contaminants of veterinary vaccines in Hungary.

“The safety of veterinary vaccines is of paramount importance and it is significantly jeopardised by extraneous agents such as bacteria, mycoplasma, Chlamydia and viruses. Several critical steps of vaccine manufacture involve a potential risk of viral contamination. Viruses, as extraneous, agents can be divided into two main groups. Group 1 agents, such as Pestivirus, chicken anaemia virus (CAV), and egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV) are well-known to manufacturers and authorities. Compendial detection methods, clear guidelines and legislation have been established to minimise the risk of contamination with these agents. Contrary to group 1, group 2 agents like Torque Teno virus (TTV) or RD114, a replication-competent feline gamma-retrovirus, have only recently been recognised and their role as contaminants needs further investigation. Randomly selected veterinary vaccines used between 1992 and 2009 were tested by nucleic acid amplification for CAV, EDSV, and TTV. Pestivirus contamination was examined in 33 vaccines used between 1996 and 2006 and a further 27 vaccines used between 2007 and 2009 based on random selection of these vaccines. In addition to random tests done on vaccines used from 2007 on, 12 batches of live Aujeszky’s disease vaccines submitted to our laboratory for Official Control Authority Batch Release (OCABR) were also tested for Pestivirus.”

#Contamination #Veterinary #Animals #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Transmission of vaccinia virus from vaccinated milkers to cattle.

“An infection of cattle by transmission of vaccinia virus from milkers vaccinated against small pox is reported. Six vaccinia virus strains could be isolated from the vaccinal lesions localized on the nipples of the udder. Serological reactions with samples collected from diseased cows demonstrated the presence of HAI antibodies and made evident their kinetics at a 2-week-interval.”

#Shedding #Smallpox #Veterinary #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

The unexpected discovery of Brucella abortus Buck 19 vaccine in goats from Ecuador underlines the importance of biosecurity measures.

“All results were negative, apart from a single sample, obtained from a serologically positive goat in Quito, that was positive for Brucella abortus strain 19 (B19). Several hypotheses are forwarded concerning this unexpected result. The most likely hypothesis is the possible accidental use of a needle, previously used for vaccination of cattle with the said vaccine, for the administration of drug treatment to the goat. This hypothesis underlines the necessity of biosecurity measures to prevent this type of accidents.”

#Veterinary #Animals
#Vaccine #Error #MedScienceResearch

The use of fetal bovine serum: ethical or scientific problem?

“Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is a common component of animal cell culture media. It is harvested from bovine fetuses taken from pregnant cows during slaughter. FBS is commonly harvested by means of a cardiac puncture without any form of anaesthesia. Fetuses are probably exposed to pain and/or discomfort, so the current practice of fetal blood harvesting is inhumane. Apart from moral concerns, several scientific and technical problems exist with regard to the use of FBS in cell culture. Efforts should be made to reduce the use of FBS or, preferably, to replace it with synthetic alternatives.”

#Corruption #Vaccine #Animal #Veterinary #MedScienceResearch

Vaccine-associated immune-mediated hemolytic anemia in the dog.

#Animal #Veterinary #Immune #Anemia #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch