Anaphylactic reactions to measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in three children with allergies to hen’s egg and cow’s milk.
“AIM: Allergies to hen’s egg and cow’s milk are the most frequent food allergies in infancy and childhood. Current guidelines recommend safe administration of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in egg allergic patients.
METHODS: We present three cases of anaphylaxis that we encountered after MMR vaccination in children sensitized to hen’s egg and cow’s milk.
RESULTS: Even though MMR vaccine is generally known to be safe in children with egg allergy, there may still be isolated cases of anaphylaxis.
CONCLUSION: Therefore, we recommend that all children not only those who were sensitized to foods should receive the MMR vaccination in a setting that is equipped to deal with anaphylactic reactions. As stated by WHO in immunization safety surveillance, ‘Each vaccinator must have an emergency kit with adrenaline, and be familiar with its dosage and administration’.
© 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.”
Anaphylaxis after zoster vaccine: Implicating alpha-gal allergy as a possible mechanism.
“Gelatin and other nonprimate mammal–derived products are common excipient ingredients in several vaccines, and it has been postulated that patients with alpha-gal allergy might react to these vaccines.”
Anaphylaxis to succinylated gelatin in a patient with a meat allergy: galactose-α(1, 3)-galactose (α-gal) as antigenic determinant.
Specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) antibodies towards the galactose-α(1,3)-galactose (α-gal) moieties may elicit life-threatening and fatal anaphylactic reactions. Patients sensitized to α-gal moieties from mammalian meat may also react towards mammalian gelatins and gelatin-containing drugs such as bovine gelatin-based colloid plasma substitute. The case of a 56 year old woman with a meat allergy who suffered anaphylaxis to succinylated gelatin is reported.
A clinical analysis of gelatin allergy and determination of its causal relationship to the previous administration of gelatin-containing acellular pertussis vaccine combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids.
Food allergy to gelatin in children with systemic immediate-type reactions, including anaphylaxis, to vaccines.
Gastrointestinal immunopathology and food allergy.
“In contrast to the beneficial expressions of gastrointestinal-associated lymphoid tissue, which are seen with relevance to newer methods of delivery of vaccines directly applied to the gastrointestinal mucosal surfaces (eg, oral poliovirus, rotavirus, Salmonella typhi vaccines), the adverse consequences of a mucosal immune response gone astray are evidenced in many diseases such as FA. A classification of clinical disorders associated with FA based on classic mechanisms of immunologic injury is presented, which includes the following: (1) IgE-mediated, (2) non-IgE-mediated, and (3) mixed IgE- and non-IgE-mediated disorders. Our study of immunologic disturbance in patients with non-IgE FA revealed a pattern of increased CD4+ and decreased TH1 cell counts in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in contrast to patients with celiac disease, where a pattern of increased CD8+ and TH1 cell counts in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and increased CD8+ cell counts was seen.”
Pertussis adjuvant prolongs intestinal hypersensitivity.
“CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate nanogram quantities of PT, when administered with a food protein, result in long-term sensitization to the antigen, and altered intestinal neuroimmune function. These data suggest that exposure to bacterial pathogens may prolong the normally transient immune responsiveness to inert food antigens.”
? A possible central mechanism in autism spectrum disorders, part 1.
The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of related neurodevelopmental disorders that have been increasing in incidence since the 1980s. Despite a considerable amount of data being collected from cases, a central mechanism has not been offered. A careful review of ASD cases discloses a number of events that adhere to an immunoexcitotoxic mechanism. This mechanism explains the link between excessive vaccination, use of aluminum and ethylmercury as vaccine adjuvants, food allergies, gut dysbiosis, and abnormal formation of the developing brain. It has now been shown that chronic microglial activation is present in autistic brains from age 5 years to age 44 years. A considerable amount of evidence, both experimental and clinical, indicates that repeated microglial activation can initiate priming of the microglia and that subsequent stimulation can produce an exaggerated microglial response that can be prolonged. It is also known that one phenotypic form of microglia activation can result in an outpouring of neurotoxic levels of the excitotoxins, glutamate and quinolinic acid. Studies have shown that careful control of brain glutamate levels is essential to brain pathway development and that excesses can result in arrest of neural migration, as well as dendritic and synaptic loss. It has also been shown that certain cytokines, such as TNF-alpha, can, via its receptor, interact with glutamate receptors to enhance the neurotoxic reaction. To describe this interaction I have coined the term immunoexcitotoxicity, which is described in this article.”
Rabies post-exposure prophylaxis for a child with severe allergic reaction to rabies vaccine.