Interstitial Pneumonia Associated with the Influenza Vaccine: A Report of Two Cases.
Mycobacterium bovis lymphadenitis complicating BCG immunization in an infant with symptomatic HIV-1 infection.
“A 3-month-old infant with HIV-1 infection who recently immigrated from Ethiopia developed regional lymphadenitis and systemic symptoms subsequent to BCG immunization. She was suffering from axillary lymphadenitis ipsilateral to the BCG vaccination site, failure to thrive, unresolving fever and hepatosplenomegaly. Acid-fast bacilli were seen on staining and Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from the regional lymph node. The infant responded promptly to triple antituberculous therapy but died 2 months later from overwhelming pneumonia and respiratory failure. This case emphasizes the iatrogenic hazards of BCG immunization in HIV-1 infected infants. With the increasing prevalence of pediatric HIV-1 infection, indiscriminate BCG immunization programs should be reconsidered. While infants with asymptomatic HIV-1 infection at risk for tuberculosis should be immunized, BCG immunization should be withheld in those with symptomatic disease.”
Pneumococcal vaccine failure: can it be a primary immunodeficiency?
“We present the case of a 4-year-old boy, with complete antipneumococcal vaccination, who had necrotising pneumonia with pleural effusion and severe pancytopaenia with need for transfusion. A vaccine-serotype Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated in the blood culture. On follow-up, detailed medical history, laboratory and genetic investigation led to the diagnosis of X linked dyskeratosis congenita.”
A Pneumonia Case Associated with Type 2 Polio Vaccine Strains.
[Recurrent meningitis and inherited complement deficiency].
“The first patient had four attacks of meningococcal meningitis and an episode of pneumonia of unknown aetiology in childhood. The second had six attacks of meningitis. He also suffered from recurrent infections (otitis media, tonsillitis, chronic mucopurulent rhinitis and subsequent pansinusitis complicated by nasal polyposis) since childhood. No autoimmune disease was documented in either patient. They both received meningococcal and pneumococcal vaccines.”