? Assessment of iatrogenic transmission of HCV in Southern Italy: was the cause the Salk polio vaccination?
“Since the first studies on hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence were published, it has been evident that southern Italy is an area of hyperendemicity. A recent study conducted in southern Italy suggested that the high prevalence of HCV infection might be the result of past iatrogenic transmission. Polio vaccination with the parenteral Salk vaccine between 1956 and 1965 by multiple use of unsafe glass syringes may have been one of the major causes of the spread of HCV infection among southern Italian adults who are now older than 40 years of age. Persons born between the 1940s and early 1960s have a nearly 3-fold increased risk of HCV seropositivity than the younger age group. The findings are consistent with a cohort effect of exposure to the Salk parenteral vaccination.”
Autoimmune hepatitis type 2 following anti-papillomavirus vaccination in a 11-year-old girl.
? The cost of unsafe injections.
“Unsafe injection practices are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, particularly from hepatitis B and C and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections.”
“Annually more than 1.3 million deaths and US$ 535 million are estimated to be due to current unsafe injection practices. With the global increase in the number of injections for vaccination and medical services, safer injecting technologies such as auto-disable syringes must be budgeted for.”
Fulminant hepatitis and multisystem organ failure following yellow fever vaccination: description of a fatal case.
No abstract available.
Hepatitis B vaccination and adult associated gastrointestinal reactions: a follow-up analysis.
The injection century: massive unsterile injections and the emergence of human pathogens.
“Unsterile medical injections are common in the less-developed world, where most visits to a doctor result in the (generally unnecessary) administration of intramuscular, or subcutaneous drugs. WHO estimates1 that every year unsafe injections result in 80 000–160 000 new HIV-1 infections, 8·16 million hepatitis B infections, and 2·3–4·7 million hepatitis C infections worldwide (this figure does not include transfusions). Together, these illnesses account for 1·3 million deaths and 23 million years of lost life.”
? Injection Safety Practice among Health Workers in Static Immunisation Centres in an Urban Community of Nigeria.
“However, reports have it that about one-third of immunisation injections are unsafe in many countries of the world including Africa.”
“The common infections associated with unsafe injection listed by the subjects were abscess, HIV and Hepatitis in that order of frequency.”
“Re-use of syringe for vaccine withdrawal and re-capping of used needles before discard were common practices observed while accidental needle stick injury was reported by about half (49%) of the subjects.”
Mortality and morbidity among military personnel and civilians during the 1930s and World War II from transmission of hepatitis during yellow fever vaccination: systematic review.
“During World War II, nearly all US and Allied troops received yellow fever vaccine. Until May 1942, it was both grown and suspended in human serum. In April 1942, major epidemics of hepatitis occurred in US and Allied troops who had received yellow fever vaccine. A rapid and thorough investigation by the US surgeon general followed, and a directive was issued discontinuing the use of human serum in vaccine production. The large number of cases of hepatitis caused by the administration of this vaccine could have been avoided. Had authorities undertaken a thorough review of the literature, they would have discovered published reports, as early as 1885, of postvaccination epidemics of hepatitis in both men and horses. It would take 4 additional decades of experiments and epidemiological research before viruses of hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E were identified, their modes of transmission understood, and their genomes sequenced.”
Vaccination as a triggering event for autoimmune hepatitis.
The XIX century smallpox prevention in Naples and the risk of transmission of human blood-related pathogens.
“Although Galbiati established the retro-vaccination (1803) and developed the “calf” lymph vaccine, recognized and implemented since 1864 as the optimal smallpox vaccine in the following hundred years, Naples general population was mainly vaccinated with “human” lymph from abandoned children until 1893. Mini-epidemics of syphilis and serum hepatitis were periodically reported as results of arm-to-arm procedure. The risk of transmission of blood-related pathogens was higher in Naples where >80% of abandoned children, used as repository of cowpox virus, were dying in their first year of life.”