BCG

The Adverse Events, Signs, and Management of Neonatal Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Vaccine Overdose.

“A two-day-old male neonate was inadvertently immunized with 20-times the recommended dose of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine (1.0 ml instead of 0.05 ml).”

#Error #BCG #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27403247/

Adverse reactions to BCG.

“In the post-war period the following BCG vaccines were successively in use for preventive vaccination in the Czech territory: (a) Copenhagen BCG, 1947-1950, (b) Prague BCG 725, 1951-1980, (c) Moscow BCG, 1981-1993, and (d) Behring BCG, from 1994 onwards. These BCG substrains can be now identified by modern methods of molecular genetics. Introducing the Moscow BCG brought about an elevated incidence of iatrogenic local and regional lymph node adverse reactions compared with the previous Prague BCG product and, as a new phenomenon, bone and joint involvements in children vaccinated at birth. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of postvaccination adverse reactions reported in the period from 1981 to 1993 as related to the Moscow BCG vaccine and, to demonstrate the effect of lower vaccination dosage on their frequency. The concentration of the Moscow BCG varied from 11 to 22.6 x 10(6) (average 16.2) CFU per 1 mg. In the period when full dose of BCG (0.05 mg per 0.1 ml) was applied to newborns 437 local and 195 regional lymph node complications were recorded, i.e. 0.08% of vaccinated were affected, demanding antituberculosis chemotherapy in 6.5% and surgical interventions in 24%. When the lowered vaccination dose (0.025 mg per 0.1 ml) was inoculated to newborns the local adverse reactions rose paradoxically affecting 0.1% of vaccinated but the regional lymph node reactions fell considerably to reach 0.01%; the demand for chemotherapy and surgery also fell down to 3.1 and 4.8% respectively. Bone and joint adverse involvements were recorded in 28 cases, i.e. in 3.7 per 10(5) of those vaccinated with the full dose.”

#BCG #Vaccine
#MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8535371/

Bacillus Calmette-Guérin reactivation as a sign of incomplete Kawasaki disease.

“An early and specific clinical sign, not included in the classical diagnosis criteria, but that can be very useful in the diagnosis of KD, is the reaction at the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) inoculation site. We describe a case of a 4-month-old boy, fully immunised, whose BCG scar reactivation led to the diagnosis of IKD. This case-report emphasises the importance of BCG site reactivation in establishing a diagnosis of IKD that clinicians should be aware of, especially in countries where BCG vaccination is still part of the immunisation schedule.
2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.”

#Kawasaki #BCG #Vaccine
#MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27033285/

BCG and Kawasaki disease in Mexico and Japan. (2017)

“The BCG reaction in the inoculation site may represent the most useful sign in KD.”

#Kawasaki #BCG #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28281896/

Bcg induced mycobacterial spindle cell pseudotumor in an infant.

“We report a case of MSP in the axillary lymph node of a 7-month-old infant, following Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, which was proved by PCR.”

#BCG #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19810594/

[BCG reactivation: a rare but specific sign of Kawasaki disease].

Plantin P, et al. Presse Med. 1998.

No abstract available
PMID 9767910

#Kawasaki #BCG #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/9767910/

BCG site inflammation: a useful diagnostic sign in incomplete Kawasaki disease.

Chalmers D, et al. J Paediatr Child Health. 2008.

No abstract available
PMID 18928475

#Kawasaki #BCG #Vaccine
#MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18928475/

Borderline tuberculoid leprosy following BCG vaccination. A case report.

“Borderline tuberculoid leprosy was diagnosed clinically and histologically in a four year-old boy about 6 months after intradermal vaccination with BCG. His mother reported that a lesion began to appear above the vaccination site on the arm 2 weeks after the vaccination, and a second lesion appeared on the chin 2 months later. Responses in the lymphocyte transformation test to sonicated Mycobacterium leprae, BCG, and to PPD were consistent with a tuberculoid leprosy infection. Precipitation of BT leprosy by intradermal BCG infection may possibly represent the overcoming of a phase of primary suppression in an individual who might otherwise have progressed toward lepromatous leprosy. The implications of this hypothesis for the planning of a controlled trial of an anti-leprosy vaccine are discussed.”

#Leprosy #BCG #Dermatological
#Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7195879/

Bull’s eye dermatoscopy pattern at bacillus Calmette-Guérin inoculation site correlates with systemic involvements in patients with Kawasaki disease.

#Kawasaki #BCG #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/26935002/

A Case of Sudden Infant Death Due to Incomplete Kawasaki Disease.

“In our 5-month-old case, he had been admitted to a hospital for a fever and suppuration at the site of Bacille de Calmette et Guerin (BCG) vaccination.”

#BCG #Dermatological #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/26347043/

Chronic anterior uveitis following bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination: molecular mimicry in action?

#Ophthalmological #BCG #Uveitis #HLA #Eyes #Molecular #Mimicry #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18705627

[The detachment of retina as possible complication after BCG vaccination during HOP–description of case].

“Probably secondary inflammation after BCG vaccination could be the reason of reactivation of earlier treated with good results ROP Possible vision complications should incline to take special ophthalmologic care of premature infants from high risk group (very low mass of the body or fetal immaturity).”

#Opthalmological #Eyes #BCG #Premature #Vaccine
#MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17455724/

Diagnostic approach and current treatment options in childhood vasculitis.

“Reaction at the site of administration of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine may be observed as commonly as cervical lymphadenopathy in Kawasaki disease and may be used as a valuable finding in suspicious cases.”

#Kawasaki #BCG #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/26884688/

[“Euthanasia”–victims and test subjects. The fate of diseased, disabled children in Berlin during World War II].

“This article shows, through a study of the Berlin-Brandenburg region, that children and juveniles who were subjected to the killings of diseased and disabled, or mentally retarded, persons during the Third Reich did not only fall victim to the operations of the “Reichsausschuss” (“Reich Commission for Registration of Severe Disorders in Childhood”). Many were also included in the gas chamber killings of the “T4”-action and in various decentralized killing actions. Furthermore, the co-operation of various medical disciplines in the misuse of children for scientific research is demonstrated by looking into the research on a tuberculosis vaccine. It can be shown that the purpose of the killings was not the painless ending of individual suffering, but that they constituted a means of freeing the public from so-called “ballast existences”, whose lives were only prolonged if they could be of scientific use.”

#Corruption #BCG #Tuberculosis #Nazi #Death #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15497481/

Kawasaki disease characterized by erythema and induration at the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin and purified protein derivative inoculation sites.

Hsu YH, et al. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1987.

No abstract available
PMID 3615073

#Kawasaki #BCG #Vaccine
#MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/3615073/

Lupus vulgaris at the site of BCG vaccination: report of three cases.

#Dermatological #BCG #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19094126/

Mycobacterial Arthritis at 19 Months After a Bacille Calmette-Guérin Vaccination. (2017)

“A 20-month-old afebrile boy living in northern Taiwan presented with swelling of the right knee for 5 days. No other respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms were associated. A bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccination had been performed when he was 1 month of age. The X-ray showed no bony destruction, and the sonography revealed some fluid accumulation in the right suprapatellar pouch. Arthrocentesis was performed, and characteristically cream-colored pus was drained (Figure 1 ). The knee swelling persisted, and magnetic resonance imaging showed abscess formation in the right suprapatellar bursa (Figures 2 and ​and33 ). Furthermore, surgical debridement was performed, and histological examination revealed granulomatous inflammation with caseation necrosis. The pus culture yielded Mycobacterium bovis. The patient was immunocompetent and was administered with isoniazid and rifampicin. He recovered without complications.

Tuberculosis remains an important health threat and the live attenuated BCG vaccine was used to prevent childhood tuberculosis. In 2009, the annual incidence of tuberculosis in Taiwan was approximately 69 cases/100,000 persons, and the Tokyo-172 BCG vaccination was included in the national immunization program with a coverage rate of 97%.1,2 BCG-related arthritis and osteitis is a rare but severe complication.3 The lower extremities are most commonly involved.4 The estimated incidence rates of BCG-related osteitis/osteomyelitis vary with place, time, and vaccine strain; for example, two cases per million vaccinations in Japan and 30 cases per million vaccinations in Finland.4,5 In Taiwan, the incidence was 12.9 cases per million vaccinations during 2005–2007.2 Pediatricians should remain alert for mycobacterial infections in children with BCG vaccination, including those administered long before presentation of arthritis, such as 19 months in the present patient. Early diagnosis and correct treatment are crucial for successful treatment.”

#Arthritis #BCG #Autoimmunity #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5462556/

Mycobacterium bovis lymphadenitis complicating BCG immunization in an infant with symptomatic HIV-1 infection.

“A 3-month-old infant with HIV-1 infection who recently immigrated from Ethiopia developed regional lymphadenitis and systemic symptoms subsequent to BCG immunization. She was suffering from axillary lymphadenitis ipsilateral to the BCG vaccination site, failure to thrive, unresolving fever and hepatosplenomegaly. Acid-fast bacilli were seen on staining and Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from the regional lymph node. The infant responded promptly to triple antituberculous therapy but died 2 months later from overwhelming pneumonia and respiratory failure. This case emphasizes the iatrogenic hazards of BCG immunization in HIV-1 infected infants. With the increasing prevalence of pediatric HIV-1 infection, indiscriminate BCG immunization programs should be reconsidered. While infants with asymptomatic HIV-1 infection at risk for tuberculosis should be immunized, BCG immunization should be withheld in those with symptomatic disease.”

#BCG #Respiratory #Pneumonia #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8349456/

[Reactivation of the scar of BCG vaccination in Kawasaki’s disease: clinical case and literature review].

“Kawasaki disease is an acute febrile multisystemic vasculitis affecting children that can affect the coronary arteries. Routine BCG vaccination in Mexico leads to a 99% coverage in infants younger than 1 year. We present a case of Kawasaki disease with skin lesions at the site of BCG. Clinicians should be aware of this clinical manifestation that could help diagnose atypical or incomplete cases of the disease.”

#Kawasaki #BCG #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16884033/

Safety of live vaccinations on immunosuppressive therapy in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, solid organ transplantation or after bone-marrow transplantation – A systematic review of randomized trials, observational studies and case reports.

“However, some serious vaccine-related adverse events occurred. 32 participants developed an infection with the vaccine strain; in most cases the infection was mild. However, in two patients fatal infections were reported”

#Death #Vaccine #Failure
#MMR #Polio #Rotavirus #BCG #Varicella #Smallpox #Typhoid #Shingles #Yellow #Fever
#MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28162821

[Septic dislocation of the hip secondary to BCG vaccination].

“We report a case of septic dislocation of the hip in an eight-month-old infant secondary to BCG vaccination. The usual treatment of septic arthritis with surgical drainage and broad spectrum antibiotics was unsuccessful. Cure was achieved after institution of an anti-tuberculosis treatment and a second surgical drainage. This rare complication of BCG vaccination can develop several months after administration of the vaccine.”

#BCG #Musculoskeletal #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16609619/

Specific T cell frequency and cytokine expression profile do not correlate with protection against tuberculosis after bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination of newborns.

#Failure #BCG #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20558627

[Squamous cell carcinoma in ulcer after bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination].

“Marjolin’s ulcer is an aggressive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) found in chronically inflamed skin. SCC has been reported in smallpox vaccination sites, whereas basal cell carcinomas are more common in scar after bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination. A 72-year-old man presented with a chronic ulcer at the site of his childhood BCG vaccination.”

#Cancer #BCG #Dermatological #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25316362/

[Studies on the correlation among viability of BCG vaccine, vaccinal lesion and tuberculin allergy induced by vaccination in humans. Report I. On postvaccination tuberculin reaction].

OBAYASHI Y, et al. Kekkaku. 1959.

No abstract available
PMID 14428145

#Kawasaki #BCG #Vaccine
#MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/14428145/

[“…. sustaining their lives has no advantage to the nation.” Handicapped children as research subjects and the development of preventive tuberculosis vaccination].

“A large number of disabled or mentally retarded children were killed in the so-called “Children’s Special Departments” of the “Third Reich”. Such children were also misused in scientific research. Ambitious physicians in the “Children’s Special Departments” experimented on them in co-operation with other institutions. This happened, for example, in research on the tuberculosis vaccine. The effectiveness of the BCG-vaccine was primarily tested at the Children’s University Hospital of Vienna. Disabled children were first given the BCG-vaccine and then deliberately contaminated with tuberculosis bacteria. Subsequently they were transferred to Vienna’s “Children’s Special Department” in order to be killed there. The efficacy of vaccination was supposed to be demonstrable in their autopsies. Vaccine experiments were also carried out in the “Children’s Special Departments” of Berlin and Kaufbeuren. There were likewise co-operations with other institutions.”

#Corruption #BCG #Tuberculosis #Nazi #Death #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/12365349/

Too much of a good thing: management of BCG vaccine overdose.

#Error #BCG #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/19654063/

Tuberculosis II: the failure of the BCG vaccine.

“Despite the questioning of its innocuousness and efficacy, the BCG vaccine was imposed worldwide in 1950 by medical and political organizations that showed no concern for these questions.”

#Vaccine #Failure #BCG #Corruption #Tuberculosis #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/10499822

Tuberculosis in Newborns: The Lessons of the “Lübeck Disaster” (1929-1933).
Fox GJ, et al. PLoS Pathog. 2016.

“In an accident later known as the Lübeck disaster, 251 neonates were orally given three doses of the new Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) antituberculosis (TB) vaccine contaminated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A total of 173 infants developed clinical or radiological signs of TB but survived the infection, while 72 died from TB.”

#Death #Vaccine #Failure #BCG #Tuberculosis #Contamination
#MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/26794678

Tumor regression after intralesional injection of mycobacterial components emulsified in 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl-2,6,10,14,18,22-tetracosahexaene (squalene), 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyltetracosane (squalane), peanut oil, or mineral oil.

“The influence of mineral oil, squalane, squalene, or peanut oil on the antitumor activity of emulsified Bacillus Calmette-Guérin cell walls or emulsified trehalose-6,6′-dimycolate was studied in mice, each with an established transplant of a syngeneic fibrosarcoma.”

#Peanut #Vaccine #BCG #MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/427795/

Two infants with tuberculid associated with Kawasaki disease.

“The adverse events of BCG vaccination, including local reactions, lymphadenitis, osteomyelitis, tuberculid, and disseminated infection, have been reported. Two infants presented erythema at the inoculation site of BCG after the resolution of Kawasaki disease (KD). They received BCG vaccination 1 week and 6 weeks before the KD onset, respectively. Intravenous immunoglobulin improved the KD activity, however the skin rash of BCG inoculation site extended to the face and extremities days 24 and 10 after the KD onset, respectively. Both bacteriological study and interferon-γ release assay were negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. These patients were diagnosed as having tuberculid after KD.”

#Kawasaki #BCG #Vaccine
#MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27435523/

An ulcerated lesion at the BCG vaccination site during the course of Kawasaki disease.

“We describe a bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) granuloma that occurred during the course of Kawasaki disease. A 12-month-old male infant with Kawasaki disease had an erythematous indurated plaque with prominent necrotic ulceration at the BCG vaccination site on the left upper arm. Histologic study showed a granulomatous reaction consisting of epithelioid histiocytes, lymphoid cells, and Langhans-type giant cells. No evidence of mycobacterial infection was obtained. The lesion healed completely within 2 weeks without administration of antituberculous agents. We believe that the granulomatous reaction occurred as a result of hypersensitivity to proteins in the BCG vaccine, which appeared after the onset of Kawasaki disease.”

#Kawasaki #BCG #Vaccine
#MedScienceResearch

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/9270532/